There is no secret, sacrifice or methodical planning. Organizing is an evolution identifying patterns of tasks and spacial relationships. Sounds complicated doesn't it? I know people that use cardboard boxes and old food containers. My point is creating a spacial relationship within pattern of your daily life. The best way to start from scratch is to make room for two work areas. The first is your inventory of containers, the second, a sorting area. Keep in mind, the containers don't need to be expensive. Everyone from Walmart to The Container Store offers storage solutions. It is up to your budget and expectation.
The work area is a place where you can simply sort disfunction. Personally, I subdivide and sort everything before I select a permanent solution. Workflow is a very important part of my organization, I base storage placement within zones. Each zone has storage requirements, specifically related to tasks. This is the next level of being "organized". Most people don't need to be this methodical.
I will leave you with a few ideas. Sub containing is a very important solution when you are using large bins with multiple items. To my knowledge, no one makes massive divider containers. Whenever I scout bins at The Container Store, I try to figure out what other containers fit within it. This allows me to subdivide. If I could design my own large containers, subdivision would be the biggest priority. Most systems, including "Smart Home" sold at the Container Store, does not fit all of my storage expectations. Though I have found it useful in several workflow scenarios.
Lastly there is labeling. I am a huge fan of the Brother P-Touch series for the computer. Whether the container is clear or opaque, I label. I will explore this topic on another post. Just remember that organization starts with a spark and never needs to become a fire. Start the process in small achievable goals and it will take on a life of its own.